Telekomunikasi terdiri dari dua kata. “Tele” dan “komunikasi”. “Tele” berarti jauh dan “komunikasi” berarti berhubungan atau saling tukar informasi antar dua pihak. Jadi telekomunikasi bisa diartikan pertukaran informasi antar dua pihak, pihak pengirim dan pihak penerima, dimana terdapat jarak di antara keduanya. Jadi kalo anda sedang berbincang secara langsung dengan rekan anda secara hadap2an maka itu bukan termasuk telekomunikasi meskipun saat terjadi percakapan tersebut melalui media hand phone.
Penguasaan oleh Negara tersebut telah dipelajari oleh Ketetapan MPR, yaitu TAP II/MPRS/1960 yang menyatakan bahwa Negara menguasai dan menyelenggarakan perhubungan dan pengangkutan di darat, laut, udara serta perhubungan telekomunikasi seluruhnya.
PERATURAN PEMERINTAH PENGGANTI UNDANG-UNDANG REPUBLIK INDONESIA (PERPU)</COMP>
NOMOR <COMP NAME=nomor>6 TAHUN 1963 (6/1963)</COMP> TENTANG
<COMP NAME=tentTELEKOMUNIKASI , telekomunikasi ialah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman atau penerimaan tanda-tanda, isyarat-isyarat, tulisan-tulisan gambar-gambar dan suara-suara atau berita-berita dari setiap jenis-melalui kawat, radio datau sistim elektromagnetik lainnya;
- Pasal 1 Undang-undang No. 3 Tahun 1989 tentang telekomunikasi mengemukakan definisi atau pengertian telekomunikasi bahwa : Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman atau penerimaan tiap jenis tanda gambar, suara dan informasi dalam bentuk apapun melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio atau sistem elektromagnetis lainnya. Sedangkan alat telekomunikasi adalah setiap alat perlengkapan yang diagunakan dalam bertelekomunikasi.(UU Lama)
- Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman, dan atau penerimaan dari setiap informasi dalam bentuk tanda-tanda, isyarat, tulisan, gambar, suara, dan bunyi melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio, atau sistem elektromagnetik Iainnya. (UU 36 tahun 1999 tentang telekomunikasi).
- PERATURAN PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK INDONESIANOMOR 52 TAHUN 2000TENTANG PENYELENGGARAAN TELEKOMUNIKASI, Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman dan atau penerimaan dari setiap informasi dalam bentuk tanda-tanda, isyarat, tulisan, gambar, suara, dan bunyi melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio, atau sistem elektromagnetik lainnya.
- PERATURAN PEMERINTAH NOMOR 53 TAHUN 2000 TENTANG PENGGUNAAN SPEKTRUM FREKUENSI RADIO DAN ORBIT SATELIT Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman dan atau penerimaan dari setiapinformasi dalam bentuk tanda-tanda, isyarat, tulisan, gambar, suara dan bunyi melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio atau sistem elektromagnetik lainnya;
- KEPUTUSAN MENTERI PERHUBUNGAN NOMOR : KM. 20 TAHUN 2001 T E N T A N G PENYELENGGARAAN JARINGAN TELEKOMUNIKASI , Telekomunikasi adalah setiap pemancaran, pengiriman dan atau penerimaan dari setiap informasi dalam bentuk tanda-tanda, isyarat, tulisan, gambar, suara, dan bunyi melalui sistem kawat, optik, radio atau sistem elektromagnetik lainnya;(pasal 1 ayat (I).
- Definisi Telekomunikasi Menurut RR, Rec.G.701-ITU-T
Adalah any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signal, writings, images and sound or intelligence of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic Systems
The Telecommunications Act of 1996 (Section 255)
The Telecommunications Act of 1996, a comprehensive law overhauling regulation of the telecommunications industry, recognizes the importance of access to telecommunications for people with disabilities in the Information Age. Section 255 of the Act requires telecommunications products and services to be accessible to people with disabilities. This is required to the extent access is “readily achievable,” meaning easily accomplishable, without much difficulty or expense. If manufacturers cannot make their products accessible then they must design products to be compatible with adaptive equipment used by people with disabilities, where readily achievable. What is “readily achievable” will be different for each manufacturer based on the costs of making products accessible or compatible and their resources.
Guidelines and Enforcement
Manufacturers must ensure that products are “designed, developed, and fabricated to be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities” when it is readily achievable to do so. The Access Board was given the job of developing guidelines that spell out what makes telecommunications products accessible. The Board’s final guidelines, published in February 1998, were developed with help from an advisory committee the Board created for this purpose. The Telecommunications Access Advisory Committee included product manufacturers, service providers, disability groups, and experts in communication access. The final guidelines are based on this committee’s recommendations. The Federal Communications Commission is responsible for rules and policies to enforce the law.
Telecommunications products covered include:
- wired and wireless telecommunication devices, such as telephones (including pay phones and cellular phones), pagers, and fax machines
- other products that have a telecommunication service capability, such as computers with modems
- equipment that carriers use to provide services, such as a phone company’s switching equipment.
The possible functions of a product are key in determining coverage. If a product can provide telecommunication services, then that portion is covered. For example, televisions generally are not covered by section 255, except where a set-top-box enables e-mail communication or Internet access, and then only that device is covered.
Section 255’s Likely Effect
Because section 255 applies only to products designed, developed and fabricated after the law took effect on February 8, 1996, and does not require changes to existing products, its overall impact likely will not be immediate. It certainly stands to improve access and the number and range of accessible products. Still, not every new product or service will be accessible to all persons with disabilities. Manufacturers and service providers, however, are finding that as they make products easier to use by people with disabilities, they often make them easier to use by everyone; some access features, such as vibrating alerts on pagers and talking caller ID, have benefits for all users.
Telecommunications Act of 1996
47 U.S.C. §§ 153, 255
§ 153. Definitions
For the purposes of this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires–
. . .
(14) Customer premises equipment The term “customer premises equipment” means equipment employed on the premises of a person (other than a carrier) to originate, route, or terminate telecommunications.
. . .
(43) Telecommunications The term “telecommunications” means the transmission, between or among points specified by the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.
. . .
(45) Telecommunications equipment The term “telecommunications equipment” means equipment, other than customer premises equipment, used by a carrier to provide telecommunications services, and includes software integral to such equipment (including upgrades).
(46) Telecommunications service The term “telecommunications service” means the offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public, or to such classes of users as to be effectively available directly to the public, regardless of the facilities used.
. . .
§ 255. Access by persons with disabilities
(a) Definitions As used in this section–
The term “disability” has the meaning given to it by section 12102(2)(a) of Title 42.
(2) Readily achievable
The term “readily achievable” has the meaning given to it by section 12181(9) of Title 42.
(b) Manufacturing A manufacturer of telecommunications equipment or customer premises equipment shall ensure that the equipment is designed, developed, and fabricated to be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable.
(c) Telecommunications services A provider of telecommunications service shall ensure that the service is accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable.
(d) Compatibility Whenever the requirements of subsections (b) and (c) of this section are not readily achievable, such a manufacturer or provider shall ensure that the equipment or service is compatible with existing peripheral devices or specialized customer premises equipment commonly used by individuals with disabilities to achieve access, if readily achievable.
(e) Guidelines Within 18 months after February 8, 1996, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board shall develop guidelines for accessibility of telecommunications equipment and customer premises equipment in conjunction with the Commission. The Board shall review and update the guidelines periodically.
(f) No additional private rights authorized Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize any private right of action to enforce any requirement of this section or any regulation thereunder. The Commission shall have exclusive jurisdiction with respect to any complaint under this section.
Telecommunications, also called telecommunication, is the exchange of information over significant distances by electronic means. A complete, single telecommunications circuit consists of two stations, each equipped with a transmitter and a receiver. The transmitter and receiver at any station may be combined into a single device called a transceiver. The medium of signal transmission can be electrical wire or cable (also known as “copper”), optical fiber or electromagnetic fields. The free-space transmission and reception of data by means of electromagntetic fields is called wireless.
The simplest form of telecommunications takes place between two stations. However, it is common for multiple transmitting and receiving stations to exchange data among themselves. Such an arrangement is called a telecommunications network. The Internet is the largest example. On a smaller scale, examples include:
- Corporate and academic wide-area networks (WANs)
- Telephone networks
- Police and fire communications systems
- Taxicab dispatch networks
- Groups of amateur radio operators
Data is conveyed in a telecommunications circuit by means of an electrical signal called the carrier or carrier wave. In order for a carrier to convey information, some form of modulation is required. The mode of modulation can be broadly categorized as either analog or digital. In analog modulation, some aspect of the carrier is varied in a continuous fashion. The oldest form of analog modulation is amplitude modulation (AM), still used in radio broadcasting at some frequencies. Digital modulation actually predates analog modulation; the earliest form was Morse code. During the 1900s, dozens of new forms of modulation were developed and deployed, particularly during the so-called “digital revolution” when the use of computers among ordinary citizens became widespread.
In some contexts, a broadcast network, consisting of a single transmitting station and multiple receive-only stations, is considered a form of telecommunications. Radio and television broadcasting are the most common examples.
Telecommunications and broadcasting worldwide are overseen by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), an agency of the United Nations (UN) with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Most countries have their own agencies that enforce telecommunications regulations formulated by their governments. In the United States, that agency is the Federal Communications Commission (FCC).